Tag: schizophrenia

Johns Hopkins Researchers Explore Gene Linked to Schizophrenia

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Not so long ago, if a person suffered from schizophrenia, mental health professionals pinned all the blame on his or her mother. So-called “refrigerator mothers” didn’t have a warm relationship with their children, the theory went, and thus caused their children severe mental distress that expressed itself as schizophrenia.

This Week in Research: Cocaine and Schizophrenia

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“It was remarkably serendipitous,” Johns Hopkins neuroscientist Solomon Snyder says. He’s talking about his team’s discovery of the brain pathway that’s affected by ingesting cocaine — and the fact that a compound to block that specific pathway, CGP3466B, has already been pinpointed. “Not only did CGP3466B help confirm the details of cocaine’s action,” Snyder says, “but it also may become the first drug approved to treat cocaine addiction.”  Using a drug to help a cocaine addict might be in the near future.

This Week in Research: Arsenic in Your Chicken; How Schizophrenia Happens

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It’s not so often that the research we talk about in this column becomes big news. We tend to look at the small-but-crucial experiments that expand our understanding of tiny crystals, or early primates, or something else that doesn’t have that much relevance to our daily lives. But this one is different. Everyone is talking about the arsenic in our chicken.

The study itself was brilliantly simple. Researchers from Johns Hopkins’s Center for a Livable Future and Arizona State tested for drug residue in feather meal, which — sorry, this is gross — is a byproduct of poultry production that’s also added to feed for other animals. In other words, the feathers stripped off the chickens get ground up with some other stuff and fed back to the chickens (or the fish, or the cattle, or whatever). This is a pretty common practice and not a big deal in itself. What the researchers were doing in this case was analyzing that feather meal to determine what drugs the poultry may have received before slaughter. And what they found was alarming:  caffeine, banned antibiotics, arsenic, and the active ingredient in Prozac. “We were kind of floored,” said Johns Hopkins scientist Keeve E. Nachman, a co-author of the study.  “It’s unbelievable what we found.”

The antibiotics in question (fluoroquinolones) were banned by the FDA in 2005 because of fears that their excessive use was making the bacteria become resistant. (In 2009, 80 percent of all antibiotic sales in the U.S. — humans included! — went to the poultry and livestock industries, which use them primarily to speed up the growth of animals, rather than for treating disease.) The study’s authors urged the FDA to step up its regulation of the poultry and livestock industries. “By looking into feather meal, and uncovering a drug banned nearly 6 years ago, we have very little confidence that the food animal production industry can be left to regulate itself,” said Nachman.

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